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Quran in Chronological Order

Chronological Order of Quranic Surahs

Those Westerners who manage to pick up a translation of the Quran are often left bewildered as to its meaning thanks to ignorance of a critically important principle of Quranic interpretation known as ”abrogation.” The principle of abrogation — al-naskh wa al-mansukh (the abrogating and the abrogated) — directs that verses revealed later in Muhammad’s career ”abrogate” — i.e., cancel and replace — earlier ones whose instructions they may contradict. Thus, passages revealed later in Muhammad’s career, in Medina, overrule passages revealed earlier, in Mecca. The Quran itself lays out the principle of abrogation:

2:106. Whatever a Verse (revelation) do We {Allah} abrogate or cause to be forgotten, We bring a better one or similar to it. Know you not that Allah is able to do all things?

It seems that 2:106 was revealed in response to skepticism directed at Muhammad that Allah’s revelations were not entirely consistent over time. Muhammad’s rebuttal was that ”Allah is able to do all things” — even change his mind. To confuse matters further, though the Quran was revealed to Muhammad sequentially over some twenty years’ time, it was not compiled in chronological order. When the Quran was finally collated into book form under Caliph Uthman, the suras were ordered from longest to shortest with no connection whatever to the order in which they were revealed or to their thematic content. In order to find out what the Quran says on a given topic, it is necessary to examine the other Islamic sources that give clues as to when in Muhammad’s lifetime the revelations occurred. Upon such examination, one discovers that the Meccan suras, revealed at a time when the Muslims were vulnerable, are generally benign; the later Medinan suras, revealed after Muhammad had made himself the head of an army, are bellicose (see Chronological Order of Quranic Surahs).

— Gregory M. Davis: Islam 101

The Noble Qur’an (USC MSA)
Skeptic’s Annotated Quran

The Early Meccan Surahs

1 The Clot (96)
2 The Pen (68)
3 The Enshrouded One (73)
4 The Cloaked One (74)
5 The Opening (1)
6 Palm Fibre (111)
7 The Overthrowing (81)
8 The Most High (87)
9 The Night (92)
10 The Dawn (89)
11 The Morning Hours (93)
12 Solace (94)
13 The Declining Day (103)
14 The Coursers (100)
15 Abundance (108)
16 Rivalry in Worldly Increase (102)
17 Small Kindnesses (107)
18 The Disbelievers (109)
19 The Elephant (105)
20 The Daybreak (113)
21 Mankind (114)
22 The Unity (112)
23 The Star (53)
24 He Frowned (80)
25 Power (97)
26 The Sun (91)
27 The Mansions of the Stars (85)
28 The Fig (95)
29 Winter or Qureysh (106)
30 The Calamity (101)           

Middle Meccan Surahs (618-620)

31 The Rising of the Dead (75)
32 The Traducer (104)
33 The Emissaries (77)
34 Oaf (50)
35 The City (90)
36 The Morning Star (86)
37 The Moon (54)
38 Sad (38)
39 The Heights (7)
40 The Jinn (72)
41 Ya Sin (36)
42 Criterion (42)
43 The Angels (35)
44 Mary (19)
45 Ta Ha (20)
46 The Event (56)
47 The Poets (26)
48 The Ant (27)
49 The Story (28)
50 The Children of Israel (17)
51 Jonah (10)
52 Hud (11)
53 Joseph (12)
54 Al-Hijr (15)
55 Cattle (6)
56 Those Who Set the Ranks (37)
57 Luqman (31)
58 Saba (34)
59 The Troops (39)
60 The Believer (40)              

Late Meccan Surahs (620-622)

61 Fusilat (41)
62 Counsel (42)
63 Ornaments of Gold (43)
64 Smoke (44)
65 Crouching (45)
66 The Wind-Curved Sandhills (46)
67 The Winnowing Winds (51)
68 The Overwhelming (88)
69 The Cave (18)
70 The Bee (16)
71 Noah (71)
72 Abraham (14)
73 The Prophets (21)
74 The Believers (23)
75 The Prostration (32)
76 The Mount (52)
77 The Sovereignty (67)
78 The Reality (69)
79 The Ascending Stairways (70)
80 The Tidings (78)
81 Those Who Drag Forth (79)
82 The Cleaving (82)
83 The Sundering (84)
84 The Romans (30)
85 The Spider (29)
86 Defrauding (83)               

The 28 Medina Surahs

87 The Cow (2)
88 Spoils of War (8)
89 The Family of ’Imran (3)
90 The Clans (33)
91 She That is to be Examined (60)
92 The Women (4)
93 The Earthquake (99)
94 Iron (57)
95 Muhammad (47)
96 The Thunder (13)
97 The Beneficent (55)
98 Time or Man (76)
99 Divorce (65)
100 The Clear Proof (98)
101 Exile (59)
102 Light (24)
103 The Pilgrimage (22)
104 The Hypocrites (63)
105 She That Disputeth (58)
106 The Private Apartments (49)
107 Banning (66)
108 Mutual Disillusion (64)
109 The Ranks (61)
110 The Congregation (62)
111 Victory (48)
112 The Table Spread (5)
113 Repentance (9)
114 Succour (110)

The Early Meccan Surahs

1 The Clot (96)
2 The Pen (68)
3 The Enshrouded One (73)
4 The Cloaked One (74)
5 The Opening (1)
6 Palm Fibre (111)
7 The Overthrowing (81)
8 The Most High (87)
9 The Night (92)
10 The Dawn (89)
11 The Morning Hours (93)
12 Solace (94)
13 The Declining Day (103)
14 The Coursers (100)
15 Abundance (108)
16 Rivalry in Worldly Increase (102)
17 Small Kindnesses (107)
18 The Disbelievers (109)
19 The Elephant (105)
20 The Daybreak (113)
21 Mankind (114)
22 The Unity (112)
23 The Star (53)
24 He Frowned (80)
25 Power (97)
26 The Sun (91)
27 The Mansions of the Stars (85)
28 The Fig (95)
29 Winter or Qureysh (106)
30 The Calamity (101)           

Middle Meccan Surahs (618-620)

31 The Rising of the Dead (75)
32 The Traducer (104)
33 The Emissaries (77)
34 Oaf (50)
35 The City (90)
36 The Morning Star (86)
37 The Moon (54)
38 Sad (38)
39 The Heights (7)
40 The Jinn (72)
41 Ya Sin (36)
42 Criterion (42)
43 The Angels (35)
44 Mary (19)
45 Ta Ha (20)
46 The Event (56)
47 The Poets (26)
48 The Ant (27)
49 The Story (28)
50 The Children of Israel (17)
51 Jonah (10)
52 Hud (11)
53 Joseph (12)
54 Al-Hijr (15)
55 Cattle (6)
56 Those Who Set the Ranks (37)
57 Luqman (31)
58 Saba (34)
59 The Troops (39)
60 The Believer (40)              

Late Meccan Surahs (620-622)

61 Fusilat (41)
62 Counsel (42)
63 Ornaments of Gold (43)
64 Smoke (44)
65 Crouching (45)
66 The Wind-Curved Sandhills (46)
67 The Winnowing Winds (51)
68 The Overwhelming (88)
69 The Cave (18)
70 The Bee (16)
71 Noah (71)
72 Abraham (14)
73 The Prophets (21)
74 The Believers (23)
75 The Prostration (32)
76 The Mount (52)
77 The Sovereignty (67)
78 The Reality (69)
79 The Ascending Stairways (70)
80 The Tidings (78)
81 Those Who Drag Forth (79)
82 The Cleaving (82)
83 The Sundering (84)
84 The Romans (30)
85 The Spider (29)
86 Defrauding (83)               

The 28 Medina Surahs

87 The Cow (2)
88 Spoils of War (8)
89 The Family of ’Imran (3)
90 The Clans (33)
91 She That is to be Examined (60)
92 The Women (4)
93 The Earthquake (99)
94 Iron (57)
95 Muhammad (47)
96 The Thunder (13)
97 The Beneficent (55)
98 Time or Man (76)
99 Divorce (65)
100 The Clear Proof (98)
101 Exile (59)
102 Light (24)
103 The Pilgrimage (22)
104 The Hypocrites (63)
105 She That Disputeth (58)
106 The Private Apartments (49)
107 Banning (66)
108 Mutual Disillusion (64)
109 The Ranks (61)
110 The Congregation (62)
111 Victory (48)
112 The Table Spread (5)
113 Repentance (9)
114 Succour (110)

 

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